Imperial entities of India
Imperial entities of India

A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a nominally sovereign monarchy under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with a greater power. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state specifically refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler under a form of indirect rule.

Before the Partition of India in 1947, multiple Rajput and non-Rajput Princely States existed in India which were not part of British India. These were the parts of the Indian subcontinent which had not been conquered or annexed by the British but were subject to subsidiary alliances.

In principle, the princely states had internal autonomy, while by treaty the British Crown had suzerainty and was responsible for the states' external affairs. In practice, while the states were indeed ruled by potentates with a variety of titles, such as Chhatrapati, Maharaja, Raja, Raje, Deshmukh, Nawab, Baig, Khan, Nizam,Mirza or specially Jam for Jadeja/Samma.

Name Dynasty
AjaigarhBundela
Ali RajpurRathore
AlidhraKathi Kshatriya
AlipuraParihar
AlwarKachwaha
AmbliaraSongara Chauhan
AnandpurKathi Kshatriya
BagasaraWala
BaghalParmar
BaghatParmar
BakrolGohil
BalsanParmar
BamraGangabasi
BangahalChandrabansi
Banka PahariBundela
BansdaSolanki
BanswaraSisodia
BaraundhaRaghuvanshi
BariaKhichi Chauhan
BarodaGaekwad
BarwalaWala
BarwaniSisodia
Bashahr
BastarBhanj
BejaTanwar
BeriParmar
BhadarwaBaghela
BhadawarBhadoria
Bhaddaiyan RajChauhan
BhadrawahChandrabansi
BhadwaJadeja
BhajjiPal
BhavnagarGohil
BhayavadarWala
BihatBundela
BijawarBundela
BikanerRathore
BilaspurChandel
BilkhaWala
BonaiRathore
BundiHada Chauhan
ChambaMushana
ChangbhakarChauhan
CharkhariBundela
ChhaliarMaharaulji
ChhatarpurParmar
Chhota UdaipurKhichi Chauhan
ChitalWala
ChorangalaKhichi Chauhan
ChotilaKhachar
ChudaJhala
Cooch BeharNarayan
DangarwaDabhi
DantaParmar
DarkotiKachwaha
DaspallaBhanj
DatarpurKatoch
DatiaBundela
DedhrotaJhala
DelathSuryavanshi
Dewas JuniorParmar
Dewas SeniorParmar
DhadiSisodia
DhamiChauhan
DharParmar
DharampurSisodia
DhenkanalBhuyavamsha
DhrangadhraJhala
DhrolJadeja
DungarpurSisodia
Gad BoriadKhichi Chauhan
GangpurParmar
GarrauliBundela
GondalJadeja
GulerKatoch
GwaliorScindia
Hadala-BagasaraWala
HapaParmar
Hindol
IdarRathore
IndoreHolkar
JaipurKachwaha
JaisalmerBhati
Jalia DevaniJadeja
JambugodhaParmar
JammuJamwal
Jammu And KashmirJamwal
JamniaSongara Chauhan
JasdanKathi Kshatriya
JashpurChauhan
JasoBundela
JaswanKatoch
JetpurWala
JhabuaRathore
JhalawarJhala
JigniBundela
JobatRathore
JodhpurRathore
JubbalRathore
Kachhi BarodaRathore
KalahandiNaagvanshi
KangraKatoch
KankerChandra
KaraudiaChauhan
KarauliJadon
KathiwadaJadon
KawardhaRaj Gond
KeonjharKachwaha
KeonthalChandrabansi
KhairagarhNaagvanshi
KhandparaBaghela
KhanetiParihar
KharediJadeja
Khari-BagasaraWala
KharsawanRathore
KhijadiaWala
KhilchipurKhichi Chauhan
KhirasraJadeja
KishangarhRathore
KolhapurBhonsle
KoreaChauhan
KotahHada Chauhan
Kotda SanganiJadeja
KothiBaghela
KotkhaiSuryavanshi
KumharsainParihar
KuniharRaghuvansi
KushalgarhRathore
KutchJadeja
Kuthar
LakhtarJhala
LathiGohil
LimbdiJhala
LunawadaSolanki
Maheshpur RajSuryavanshi
MahilogSuryavanshi
MaiharKachwaha
MakraiRaj Gond
MalpurRathore
MandiChandrabansi
MandwaKhichi Chauhan
MangalSen
MansaChavda
MayurbhanjBhanj
MohanpurParmar
MorviJadeja
MudholBhonsle
MuliParmar
MulthanRathore
MysoreWadiyar
Nagar UntariSuryavanshi
NagodParihar
NagpurBhonsle
NalagarhChandel
NarsinghgarhParmar
Narsinghpur
NasvadiSolanki
NawanagarJadeja
NayagarhBaghela
NilgiriBhanj
NimkheraChauhan
NurpurTanwar
OrchhaBundela
Pal LaharaSuryavanshi
PalasniParmar
PalitanaGohil
PannaBundela
PatnaChauhan
PethapurBaghela
PhaltanParmar
PiplodaDodiya Rajput
PorbandarJethwa
PratapgarhSisodia
PunadraJhala
RaigarhRaj Gond
RairakholRathore
RajgarhParmar
RajkotJadeja
RajpiplaGohil
RanasanParmar
RankaGor
Ranpur
RatlamRathore
RawingarhRathore
RewahBaghela
SailanaRathore
SaktiRaj Gond
SamtharBadgujjar
SanalaWala
SandurGhorpade
Sangri
SanjeliChauhan
SantParmar
SarangarhRaj Gond
SarilaBundela
SataraBhonsle
SathambaSolanki
SavantvadiBhonsle
SaylaJhala
SeraikellaRathore
ShahpuraSisodia
SibaKatoch
SirmurBhati
SirohiDeora Chauhan
SitamauRathore
SohawalBaghela
SonepurChauhan
SudasnaParmar
SurganaParmar
SurgujaRaksel
TalcherKachwaha
TanjoreBhonsle
Tehri GarhwalParmar
Thana DevliWala
TharadBaghela
TharochSisodia
Tigiria
Tori FatehpurBundela
TulsipurChauhan
UdaipurSisodia
UdaipurRaksel
VadiaKathi
ValaGohil
VarsodaChavda
VijaynagarRathore
VirpurJadeja
WadagamParmar
WadhwanJhala
WankanerJhala

Gun Salutes

A salute state was a princely state under the British Raj during the time of British rule which had been granted a gun salute by the British Crown (as paramount ruler); i.e., the protocolary privilege for its ruler to be greeted—originally by Royal Navy ships, later also on land—with a number of cannon shots, in graduations of two salutes from three to 21, as recognition of the state's relative status. The gun-salute system of recognition was first instituted during the time of the East India Company in the late 18th century, and was continued under direct Crown rule from 1858.

Salutes Provinces
21Baroda, Gwalior, Jammu And Kashmir, Mysore
19Indore, Kolhapur, Udaipur
17Bikaner, Bundi, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Karauli, Kotah, Kutch, Rewah
15Alwar, Banswara, Datia, Dewas Senior, Dhar, Dungarpur, Idar, Jaisalmer, Kishangarh, Orchha, Pratapgarh, Sirohi
13Bhavnagar, Cooch Behar, Dhrangadhra, Jhalawar, Nawanagar, Porbandar, Rajpipla, Ratlam
11Ajaigarh, Ali Rajpur, Barwani, Bijawar, Bilaspur, Chamba, Charkhari, Chhatarpur, Gondal, Jhabua, Mandi, Morvi, Narsinghgarh, Panna, Rajgarh, Sailana, Samthar, Sirmur, Sitamau, Tehri Garhwal, Wankaner
9Bansda, Baria, Chhota Udaipur, Danta, Dharampur, Dhrol, Kalahandi, Khilchipur, Limbdi, Lunawada, Maihar, Mayurbhanj, Mudhol, Nagod, Palitana, Patna, Rajkot, Sant, Savantvadi, Shahpura, Sonepur, Wadhwan

Agencies

By the time of the departure of the British in 1947, only four of the largest of the states still had their own British Resident, a diplomatic title for advisors present in the states' capitals, while most of the others were grouped together into Agencies, such as the Central India Agency, the Deccan States Agency, Rajputana Agency, etc.

Eastern States Agencies was a political office of the Bengal Presidency of the British Indian Empire and consisted of Orissa States Agency, Chhattisgarh States Agency and Bengal States Agency. Baroda and Gujarat States Agency was a political agency of British India, managing the relations of the British government of the Bombay Presidency with a collection of princely states. Mahi Kantha was a political agency within the Gujarat Division of Bombay Presidency. The Rajputana Agency was a political office of the British Indian Empire dealing with a collection of states northwestern India, under the political charge of an Agent reporting directly to the Governor-General of India and residing at Mount Abu in the Aravalli Range. For administrative purposes Rajputana Agency (Area 330,330 km2) was subdivided into nine groups of states, consisting of three residencies and six agencies:

  • Mewar Residency (Area 12,691mi2), with headquarters at Udaipur, dealt with Mewar State (Udaipur).
  • Western Rajputana States Agency, which included the states of Banswara, Dungarpur and Pratapgarh. This agency was part of Mewar Residency until 1906, when it was separated.
  • Jaipur Residency (Area 15,579mi2), with headquarters at Jaipur, dealt with the states of Jaipur and Kishangarh, as well as the estate of Lawa.
  • Western Rajputana States Residency (Area 34,963mi2), with its headquarters at Jodhpur, dealt with the states of Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, and Sirohi.
  • Bikaner Agency (Area 23,311mi2), with headquarters at Bikaner, dealt with the state of Bikaner.
  • Alwar Agency, with headquarters at Alwar, dealt with the state of Alwar.
  • Eastern Rajputana States Agency, with headquarters at Bharatpur, dealt with the states of Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauli.
  • Haraoti-Tonk Agency, with headquarters at Deoli, dealt with the states of Tonk, Bundi and Shahpura.
  • Kotah-Jhalawar Agency, with headquarters at Kota, dealt with the states of Kota and Jhalawar.
All of the states had Hindu Rajput rulers, except Tonk, which had a Muslim ruler, and Bharatpur State and Dholpur State, which had Jat rulers.

Agency Provinces
Bengal States AgencyCooch Behar, Mayurbhanj
Central India AgencyAjaigarh, Ali Rajpur, Alipura, Banka Pahari, Baraundha, Barwani, Bijawar, Charkhari, Chhatarpur, Datia, Dewas Junior, Dewas Senior, Dhar, Indore, Jaso, Jobat, Khilchipur, Kothi, Maihar, Makrai, Nagod, Narsinghgarh, Orchha, Panna, Piploda, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Rewah, Sailana, Sohawal, Tori Fatehpur
Chhattisgarh States AgencyBastar, Changbhakar, Jashpur, Kalahandi, Kanker, Kawardha, Khairagarh, Korea, Patna, Raigarh, Sakti, Sarangarh, Surguja, Udaipur
Deccan States AgencyKolhapur, Mudhol, Phaltan, Savantvadi
Gujarat States AgencyAmbliara, Bakrol, Bansda, Baroda, Chhota Udaipur, Dhrangadhra, Idar, Kutch, Lakhtar, Limbdi, Lunawada, Muli, Nawanagar, Rajpipla, Sanjeli, Sant, Surgana, Tharad, Vijaynagar, Wankaner
Gwalior ResidencyGwalior
Individual residencyJammu And Kashmir, Mysore
Kathiawar AgencyBhavnagar, Dhrol, Gondal, Morvi, Porbandar, Rajkot, Wadhwan
Madras PresidencySandur
Mahi Kantha AgencyMalpur, Mansa, Mohanpur, Pethapur, Punadra, Ranasan, Sudasna, Varsoda
Orissa States AgencyBamra, Bonai, Daspalla, Dhenkanal, Gangpur, Hindol, Keonjhar, Khandpara, Kharsawan, Narsinghpur, Nayagarh, Nilgiri, Pal Lahara, Rairakhol, Ranpur, Seraikella, Sonepur, Talcher, Tigiria
Punjab States AgencyBilaspur, Kangra, Mandi, Siba, Sirmur, Tehri Garhwal
Rajputana AgencyAlwar, Banswara, Bikaner, Bundi, Dungarpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jhalawar, Jodhpur, Karauli, Kishangarh, Kotah, Kushalgarh, Pratapgarh, Shahpura, Sirohi, Udaipur