Amar Singh Rathore was a Rathore Rajput nobleman affiliated with the royal house of Marwar, and a courtier of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in seventeenth-century India. After he was disinherited and exiled by his family, he entered the Mughals' service. His legendary bravery and battle prowess resulted in elevation to a high rank in the imperial nobility and personal recognition by the emperor, who made him the subedar (governor) of a region that was directly ruled by the emperor himself, Nagaur. In 1644, he was enraged by an attempt by the emperor to levy a fine on him for an unauthorized absence. In the emperor's presence, he stabbed and killed Salabat Khan, a noble who had been asked to collect the fine. He is celebrated in some popular ballads of Rajasthan, Western Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.
Mughal emperor Shahjahan offered Amar Singh a significant post in his commission, which he eventually accepted. The emperor also granted him a mansab (significant land and personal army) thus making him a middle rank mansabdar. Amar Singh Rathore steadily gained promotions in Shahjahan's administration. He fought many significant battles with unmatched valour and courage. He was famous for being unconventional.
Conflict with Shah Jahan
Rathore made a mark for himself which sparked jealousy of fellow courtiers. The Muslim courtiers of the emperor were quite disturbed by the fact that a Hindu was getting significant recognisation in the court. Once, Rathore went for a hunting expedition without seeking King's permission. Shahjahan feeling insulted, summoned Rathore in his court and asked him for the reason of his absence. Rathore replied that he is not answerable to anyone, and also manifested his intentions by saying that "My sword is my only property, collect all tax from it who dares to do so."
After that an angry courtier Salavat Khan assaulted Rathore saying ‘kya jaahil jaisi baatein karto ho Raavji’, Amar Singh killed Salavat Khan in presence of entire Mughal court, an incident considered an open insult to the Mughal throne. The entire Mughal force tried to capture him,as Shahjahan looked dumb founded. After a gallant fighting Amar Singh escaped from the place, by jumping from the agra fort mounted on his horse Bahadur. His horse Bahadur, a marwari horse died after the jump. A Chhatri or cenotaph of Bahadur at the foot step of Agra fort in the memory of Bahadur is a site for attraction for tourists even today.
Conspiracy and the betrayal
Shahjahan wanted this affair to be settled at any cost. At this point, Amar Singh's brother-in-law, Arjun Gaud took responsibility to bring Amar Singh back to Shahjahan's court. Arjun told Amar Singh that Shahjahan is seeking a compromise and has invited Amar Singh to the fort.
This was actually a trap planned by the Arjun Gaud himself. The fort's main gate was closed and only a small window like gate in the main gate was opened. Amar Singh did not bent forward to enter the gate as it meant bending before the Mughal seat, instead he entered bending backwards, as Rathore entered in the fort's gate, Arjun Gaud and his men attacked him with swords and stabbed him, thus killing Amar Singh Rathore.
Shahjahan kept Amar Singh Rathore's body was thrown on a tower challenging the Rajputs to take it away.Amar Singh's wife told Ballu Champavat regarding the challenge and that she wanted to become a Sati with her husband's body. Ballu was a friend of Amar Singh but was not in good terms with him. After Ballu's wife sarcastically remarked that her husband was a coward Ballu accepted the challenge. Ballu reached Agra with chosen fifty of the bravest amongst Rathores. Maharana of Mewar sent a finest horse to Agra the same night for Ballu. Ballu Champavat entered Agra fort in the morning as the gates opened killing the Mughals coming in his way and with the body of Amar Singh Rathore he jumped from the Agra fort mounted on a horse. Badly injured Ballu Champavat died after delivering the body to the wife of Amar Singh who became a Sati with the body of her husband.